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Are Non-Sexual and Vertical HPV Transmission Increasing the Incidence of Early Onset Cancers in HIV Negative Teenagers in Western Kenya? ? A Case Study of Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital

Arthur Ajwang, George Ogutu, Khama Rogo, Shem Otoi, Jogchum Beltman, Benson Estambale

Background: Human Papilloma Viruses is estimated to cause 99% of cervical cancers. It is mostly transmitted sexually, although non-sexual horizontal transmission includes, fomites, fingers, mouth, skin contact (other than sexual), self-inoculation, waterborne transmittal and vertical transmission. The natural history for cervical carcinogenesis is represented by HPV acquisition, HPV persistence, progression to precancerous lesions, then to invasive cancer, which take 15-20 years, but can take 5-10 years in immunosuppressed women, like those with untreated HIV infection. Early onset cancers, are cancers developed at ​

Objective: This study aimed to explore the increase in incidences of early onset cervical cancer in young HIV Negative women, including teenagers, presenting at the Oncology Clinic of the hospital.

Methodology: A mixed method study was undertaken of purposively recruited HIV negative patients, aged 13-35 years, presenting with Cancer of the Cervix in the 2020-2021 period of study, compared to the previous 2012-2019 period.

Findings: There was a significant increase in Early Onset Cancer of the Cervix in the 2020-2021 period with P-value 0.017 at CI (2.562, 18.938) as compared to the period 2012-2019 with P-value 0.012 at CI (1.921, 11.079), with 12.24% being teenagers with advanced cancer as compared to 0.57% in the retrospective period.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a significant increase of Early Onset Cancer of the Cervix amongst teenagers.